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February 11, 2016     The Oskaloosa Independent
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February 11, 2016

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P. 2 THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 2016 THE OSKALOOSA INDEPENDENT OPINION KSU Nutrient Management Spe- cialist Dr. Dorivar Ruiz-Diaz was a presenter at the KSU Soybean Schools held two weeks ago. In his presentation, he noted the effect of crop prices on purchasing power of crop nutrients. In 2012, a bushel of soybeans purchased 19 pounds of phosphate. In 2013, it purchased 20 pounds, before dropping back to 19 pounds again in 2014. For 2015, the number dropped all the way down to 16 pounds - a 20 percent drop .from just two years earlier. How can we make up for the lost purchasing power? Know what you need! For example, most soybean crops don't require any nitrogen unless you are in very high yield environments. If you are applying nitrogen to boost yield, make sure you are focusing their use in the highest yield environ- ments. Phosphorous removal in soybeans is eight-tenths of a pound per bushel. Potassium removal is one and four- tenths of a pound per bushel. When soil test levels are above 15-20 ppm P and 130 ppm K, you may get by a year without applying nutrients, but only with careful attention to the future. First, understand that skipping an application will reduce soil test levels and is only a short-term economic solution. At low soil test levels, you must apply fertilizer. Second, if you don't have a good soil testing program in place, now is the time to start one! The economic returns to soil test information are actually higher when commodity prices are low than they are when commodity prices are high. Don't overlook lime. If pH drops below 6.0, you may see reductions in nutrient availability and use ef- ficiency that can hinder fertilizer effectiveness. What about micronutrient fertility applications? KSU work has shown variable responses to micronutrient fertility (work continues...) based on soils. If you are growing soybeans in low organic matter or high sand con- tent soils, your likelihood of response to micronutrients is much greater David Hallauer Meadowlark District Extension Agent Crops, Soils, Horticulture 4-H and Youth KSU Research and Extension email: dhallaue @ than if you have higher organic mat- ters and more clay/loam soil types. With any luck, a bushel of soy- beans will regain some purchasing power in 2016. If not, our understand- ing of optimum soil fertility levels will be integral to helping make good economic decisions for our soybean production acres. Peach leaf curl control By the time you notice emerging peach leaves that are puckered, swol- len, distorted and reddish-green color, you are already too late to control peach leaf curl. Uncontrolled, this disease can severely weaken trees due to untimely leaf drop as leaves unfurl in the spring. Fortunately, peach leaf curl is not difficult to control, but fungicides must be applied before bud swell. There are several fungicides avail- able, including numerous chlorotha- lonil containing products that will work. Always read and follow label directions. Coverage is essential, so make sure to thoroughly cover the entire tree during application. Coverage will be enhanced if you prune prior to spray applications. Don't spray when temperatures are below 40 degrees or will fall below freezing before the spray dries. Usually we can wait until March to spray but an extended warm period in February that encourages early bud swell may require spraying in late February. iiii i iii!iiiiiiiiiiiii Dr. Universe: How do leaves make themselves? --Francesco R. Dear Francesco, Last fall, my friend Lee Kalcsits and I went exploring in the apple orchards of Wenatchee. The apples were ripe and the leaves were chang- ing from green to gold. We plucked a few leaves and took them back to his lab. "You know, if you take a stem, pull away all the mature leaves, and slice it from the top down, you can look at it under the microscope," said Kalcsits, a scientist at Washington State University in Wenatchee who studies all kinds of trees. He slid a tiny piece of the stem under his microscope and took a closer look. %Vhat it looks like is these tiny, moon-shaped leaves," he said."They get smaller and smaller until you get this dome-shaped structure and that's the meristem." The meristem is the part of a plant where leaves begin to form, he explained. It contains a bunch of building blocks, or cells. In a way, these cells are a lot like the ones animals have. Some of our cells will form into parts like our liver and muscles. Others will form into nerves and blood. The meristem is a growing point for other plant parts like buds and flowers, as well as leaves, Kalcsits said. While the meristem tells leaves to grow, sometimes trees get a signal to step growing, too. As the days get shorter and colder, some trees' cells will start to act like scissors. They start "snipping" the leaves. The leaves fall and the tree gets ready to hibernate to survive the cold winters. The meristem will also send a signal to the tree to form a small bumpy bud. A layer of scales will form around the bud to help protect it from the cold. "Within that bud will be all the leaves and flowers ready for the next year," Kalcsits explained. In spring, as the weather warms up, new life emerges. Tiny green leaves start to sprout from the buds. While the answer to your question can most often be traced back to the meristem, some leaves form in more unusual ways. Some plants can use their leaves to clone themselves. If just one leaf drops, a whole new plant will grow from it. In another example, leaves of pea plants can form into tendrils: curly leaves that start climbing and grabbing onto things. Other plants will grow thorns and stickers in place of their leaves to protect them from animals. Some leaves will even grow their own leaves. These are called leaflets. Leaves are important because they help plants turn sunlight into their own food. The process helps the plants survive, which is good for other living things, too. For one, plants give us food, like the apples I picked after I left Ka- lcsits' lab. Of course, leaves also help give us the air we need to breathe. Without them, life on Earth wouldn't exist as we know it. Got a question?Ask Dr. Universe./ Send an e-mail to Washington State University's resident cat-scientist and writer Wendy Sue Universe at Dr. or visit her website at T H E 0 S K A L 0 0 S A County Seat Weekly--The Official Newspaper of Jefferson County Established 1860 Six Months Older Than The State Of Kansas Sometimes, just about a quarter of the way into a legislative session, you see bills introduced that make you wonder what those legislators were thinking about last summer. A handful of those bills...given a little thought... sounds like interesting ideas that we're surprised nobody thought of before. Say, that House bill after all the TV coverage of a Kansan who was incor- rectly sentenced to prison for a murder that he didn't commit. Now, he got a trial, and the evidence that would prove that he wasn't guilty wasn't readily available. The solution? How At The, Rail about innocent people who by Martin Hawver are later found innocent and have spent years in prison get some compensa- tion that was essentially stolen from their lives. The answer, or at least the opening bid in a bill in- troduced last week: Pay the wrongly convicted felon the minimum wage ($7.25 an hour) for 40 hours a week they were in prison. Works out to $15,080 a year. You have to wonder whether that's too high, or too low, or whether getting it in a lump sum payment changes things... *** Some legislator probably was driving when he or she noticed the car ahead was weaving, but there's a bill that would make it a crime to drive while holding a cell phone to your ear. No, it probably isn't safe, and is probably less safe for others on or near the road if you tend to gesture with the other hand instead of steering. There is that loudspeaker setting on most cell phones, that are still likely to slide around the dashboard, and complicated car radios that will carry your phone calls if you can get a teenage computer wizard to teach you how to use them. *** Another bill would give you a way to help finance schools, beyond the property taxes and state income tax you pay. After all, who doesn't want to support schools that educate the kids who are eventually going to support all of us as they leave the workforce and we retire? That idea is to have the Kansas Department of Revenue add a couple lines to your income tax form-- for those who actually see a tax form on paper or on a computer screen, that gives you the option to add money above what you owe to be sent to any Kansas school district you want. Revenue will take care of sending the money to the right school district. Now, that might be handy for some folks, who decide to round-up their tax check to the nearest $10 or $20 or $50 or such, but we're betting that many folks who use the convenient school-finance checkoffjnst round up to the nearest dollar. *** There's another idea that lawmakers will consider for the first time in memory: A proposed constitutional amendment that would prohibit the administration-- any administration from taking money from the Kan- sasDepartment of Transportation, the so-called "Bank of KDOT." With hundreds of millions of dollars having been shuffled out of the road department and into the state's general fund to help balance the budget, it might be a good idea for some. Now there is, of course, that need to balance the state budget and in recent years without much revenue streaming into Topeka, that Bank of KDOT has been handy...but not necessarily popular, especially among highway contractors. Good deal? Bad deal? We'll prob- ably never see it pass, and if it did, remember, those proposed constitutional amendments are at the very bottom of the ballot, where many voters don't bother reading... *** Good ideas? Bad ideas? Or are they just ideas that might keep lawmakers busy for the session, so they don't get into trouble? No way to know, but some of'era sound relatively interesting on a slow day. Syndicated by Hawver News Company LLC of Topeka; Martin Hawver is publisher of Hawver's Capitol Report--to learn more about this statewide political news service, visit the website at After the national letter-of- provement in 2016, however slight it line. And many of Hield's 23 points intent signing day on Wednesday, might be. Whether or not that's going weren't scored on Iwundu's defense. February 3, red flags are waving to happen is questionable indeed. Coach Bruce Weber said, "He was concerning Kansas and Kansas Looking at the situation objec- special, there's no beat State football. KU's class is ranked tively, the 2016 football season isn't a number one you need someone to by recruiting experts as the worst promising for either state school. In step up and be special." in the Big 12 and K-State is just one fact, it might turnout to be another Weber has proved again that notch above the Jayhawks. disastrous year forKU and not much he is an excellent coach. His young Most of K-State's football teams better for K-State. team has progressed steadily. If the have been nationally ranked and Many so-called media experts Cats win 20 games, they'll get an highly respected during Bill Shy- are claiming that the Big 12 is the invite to the NCAA Tournament. der's 23-year tenure as the Wild- best basketball conference in the After playing first place West cats' head coach. That's about to nation. Those assertions---which are Virginia Feb. 9, Kansas travels to change. K-State lost four of their debatable--are similar to last season. Oklahoma to play Feb. 13. That's top recruits just before signing day However, in the 2015 NCAA Tourna- going to be a big one. KU is hard to and Snyder is going to be short on ment, the Big 12 had five teams make figure. These next two games will talent for the 2016 season. There's the field: Kansas, Oklahoma, Baylor, go a long way toward determining no way to sugarcoat it; the uncer- Iowa State, and West Virginia. None whether or not they are going to tainty about how long Snyder-- of those teams even made the Elite win or share the Big 12 title. who is 76 years-old--is going to Eight. The Big 12 record in the Big The only consistent player for be K-State's head coach has hurt Dance was a dismal 5-7. the Jayhawks has been Perry Ellis recruiting. The Big 12 hasn't had a team in and he's had a stellar season.As for Snyder and his staff have to the Elite Eight since Kansas in 2012. the rest of the team, they have been rebuild the offensive line and the KU won the NCAA Tournament in up and down all season. You never Wildcats don't have an established 2008; that's the only Big 12 winner know what is coming when Wayne quarterback going into the 2016 in the 20-year history of the league. Selden takes the floor. He's either season. In addition, the receiving Kansas State blew up the status exceptional or awful and there's no corps wasn't up to K-State stan- quo in the Big 12 basketball race in-between. dards last year and doesn't show a when the Wildcats defeated number- KU's two highly regarded inside lot of promise for next season, one ranked Oklahoma (80-69) last players--Carlton Bragg and Cheick It doesn't take long for a foot- Saturday. K-State improved their Diallo--continue to spend most of ball program to plummet from the overall record to 14-9 and 3-7 in their time on the bench and the upper echelon in the nation to an league play. clock's ticking. If Coach Self doesn't also-ran. Kansas State is headed In their next two games, K-State have them playing a significant in the wrong direction, plays at home against Baylor on Feb. role in the next two weeks, the Once a program has hit rock bot- 10 and at Oklahoma State Feb. 13. Jayhawks won't last long in the tom, it's close to impossible to claw The Wildcats are capable of winning NCAA Tournament. Landen Lucas the way back to respectability-- both and making a drive for a ticket and Jamari Traylor are effective that's where Kansas is. The Jay- to the Big Dance. reserves, but they are substandard hawks lost their premier recruit-- Junior F/G Wesley Iwundu scored offensive players. DT Amani Bledsoe---to Oklahoma. 22 points and played one of the best Bledsoe was a Lawrence High defensive games by a K-State player Mac Stevenson has written a School player who is ranked as the in recent history. He was magnificent sports column for 23 years and has best player in the state. KU's staff guarding OU's Buddy Hield. Even appeared in 14 Kansas newspapers did all they could to sign Bledsoe, though Hield scored 23 points, Iwun- as well as national magazines. He but it wasn't enough, du held him to 3 of 6 from the 3-point lives in Salina. Kansas needs to show some ira- owers 9 Balloons Candy 9 Cards 9 Gilt Baskets Chocolate-covered strawberries by order only. , CG:QI I 321 JeIIerson St. Oskaloosa, Kansas 785-863-2200 ~, HOURS: M-F 8 a.m. to p.m. Sat. a.m. to 3 p.m. 6 8 Sun. Closed (USPS 412-940) A legal Jefferson County Newspaper and the official publication for McLouth, Nortonville, Oskaloosa, Win- chester, Jefferson County, and Unified School Districts 339, 341 and 342. Published every Thursday at Oskaloosa, Kansas 66066. Periodical Class Postage paid at Oskaloosa (KS) Post Office. Postmaster: Send address changes to: The Oskaloosa Independent, P.O. Box 278, Oskaloosa, KS 66066. Subscription rates: New and renewals: $27.00 a year mailed to a Jefferson County Post Office (tax included); $28.50 a year elsewhere in Kansas (tax included); and $35.50 a year out-of-state; in advance. Single copy, $1; plus postage if mailed. too soon gm sawng or young Do you remember.when you start- ed your first savings account? I know I must have been pretty young when I first deposited money because I didn't quite understand how a savings ac- count worked. I was a lucky child to have a savings account early in life. Research by William EUiott from the University of Kansas has found that a child with even a small amount of money (less than $500) in a savings account is almost two and half times more likely to graduate from college than a child with no savings. While more research is needed on this topic, one possibility is that a child who identifies as a "college-saver" from an early age may be more engaged in school, and thus more likely to enroll in and graduate from college. Knowing that money in a savings account will be used for college- rather than money to be used in another way-is a form of mental ac- counting. Mental accounting involves categorizing money. I like to visualize it as placing money into different boxes. We know from research that adults use mental accounting with money in many ways. It's why many people treat money received from gifts, bonuses and also tax refunds differently than we use money from our wages. In this situation, money is often spent on items that the spender would normally consider frivolous, but because the money has been put into a different box in their minds, it feels OK. We can, and do, use mental ac- counting to help us manage our money wisely too. A good example of this is Christmas savings adcounts. Many people have savings account just to help save for the holidays; they deposit money year-round and Cindy Williams Meadowlark District Extension Agent Food, Nutrition, FNP 4-H and Youth KSU Research and Extension email: cwilliam @ then withdraw it to buy gifm. Because this money has been categorized, it's easier for people to not spend it on other things. In fact, all types of saving accounts help us. They allow us to place money that we don't want to spend on daily needs in a separate account (both mentally and physically). This is a wonderful tool! And, yet, too many people do not have enough savings. As reported in "What Resources Do Families Have for Financial Emer- gencies?" by Pew Charitable Trusts, over 40 percent ofhonseholds do not have enough easy accessible savings to pay for the $2,000 cost of the typi- cal household's most expensive finan- cial shock such as a major car or home repair or a loss of income. In fact, one in three American families report having no savings at all, including one in 10 of those with incomes of more than $100,000 a year. Now is the time to make a com- mitment to start to save in a savings account and/or help younger family t by Frank Buchman Usefulness Outweighs with little and was thrifty throughout Wastefulness his lifetime, even after retiring from a "I don't want any more junk. Icity job, that was good for the times. keep throwing stuffaway, and there's A Goodwill Store regular, he'd always more." bring others' worthless for our farm An outdoors-type, mustachioed,use. Elmer's twice-a-week hauling gray-haired fella politely refused our grocery store trash to the dump, prodding to"spin the wheel and win a he'd generally return with another's prize," when we were manning a boat throwaways Elmer considered use- show booth, able. Likely no more mature than we,Our quarter:acre, garbage-fed the rugged gentleman added, "I had ' hog pens were cobbled together with to sort out my folks' clutter when they flooring, siding, and other throwaway passed. I don't want to put my kids boards collected, Sawed by hand, and through that." we well remember Elmer's biggest, Quite the contrast to most every- strongest-grip hands straightening one else who was anxious to stop right salvaged nails to build those fences. up and claim their"everyone's a win- So, we have a definite guilty feel- ner" trinkets we were giving away. ing as we throw away what would It's fun to see the winners' smiles, have been of certain value to earlier especially little ones' thrills select- generations. ing from a dozen or so giveaways, yet Added to the dilemma, our con- that wise man's comments reflected servative attitude, obviously from most. upbringing, to the point of being Especially, as we continued sorting considered tightwad by many. After lifelong ranch accumulations, many decades saying "we'll need it some- three-pound-coffee cans of rusted, day," worthless is in the dump. We'll bent nails, bolts, nuts, hardened- buy what we need, or do without. paintbrushes, short 2x4s, brokenReminds us of Luke 12:21: "One boards, rotten plywood, holey, han- who stores up and hoards posses- die-less buckets and what knot. sions is not rich," because James 5:1: "Are we a hoarder, or are we being "To hoard is misuse of resources." So, wasteful?" Likely there'd be a differ- Ephesians 5:15: "Don't waste time ent take on the question depending on uselessness," as Matthew 26:8 "It on who we asked, is such a waste of time and money." Certainly, Uncle Elmer, were he Then, Second Chronicles 28:23:"Keep alive, would think we were throwing what is useful and valuable for all." away useful things. Elmer grew up 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Thurs., Feb. 11 at the Oskaloosa Public Library Meeting Room (RYLA Oskaloosa Office Information P.O. Box 278 607 Delaware Oskaloosa, KS 66066 Phone (785) 863-2520 Fax (785) 863-2730 E-mail: Owner & Publisher: Davis Publications Inc. Independent Staff Rick Nichob Editor Peggy Collier Office Manager Bookkeeping CoreyDavis Production Manager www. JeffCountyNews. com